/*
* Non-physical true random number generator based on timing jitter.
*
* Copyright Stephan Mueller , 2014 - 2019
*
* Design
* ======
*
* See documentation in doc/ folder.
*
* Interface
* =========
*
* See documentation in jitterentropy(3) man page.
*
* License
* =======
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, and the entire permission notice in its entirety,
* including the disclaimer of warranties.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
* products derived from this software without specific prior
* written permission.
*
* ALTERNATIVELY, this product may be distributed under the terms of
* the GNU General Public License, in which case the provisions of the GPL2 are
* required INSTEAD OF the above restrictions. (This clause is
* necessary due to a potential bad interaction between the GPL and
* the restrictions contained in a BSD-style copyright.)
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
* WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
* OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ALL OF
* WHICH ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE
* LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
* CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
* OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
* BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
* (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
* USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
* DAMAGE.
*/
/* Adapted for VeraCrypt */
#ifdef TC_WINDOWS_DRIVER
#define UINT64_MAX 0xffffffffffffffffU
#else
#include
#endif
#undef _FORTIFY_SOURCE
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#pragma optimize( "", off )
#pragma warning(disable:4242 4244 4334) /* disable warnings on the original code */
#else
#if defined(__clang__)
#pragma clang optimize off
#elif defined (__GNUC__)
#pragma GCC optimize ("O0")
#endif
#endif
#include "jitterentropy.h"
#ifdef __OPTIMIZE__
#error "The CPU Jitter random number generator must not be compiled with optimizations. See documentation. Use the compiler switch -O0 for compiling jitterentropy-base.c."
#endif
#define MAJVERSION 2 /* API / ABI incompatible changes, functional changes that
* require consumer to be updated (as long as this number
* is zero, the API is not considered stable and can
* change without a bump of the major version) */
#define MINVERSION 2 /* API compatible, ABI may change, functional
* enhancements only, consumer can be left unchanged if
* enhancements are not considered */
#define PATCHLEVEL 0 /* API / ABI compatible, no functional changes, no
* enhancements, bug fixes only */
#define ARRAY_SIZE(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0]))
/**
* jent_version() - Return machine-usable version number of jent library
*
* The function returns a version number that is monotonic increasing
* for newer versions. The version numbers are multiples of 100. For example,
* version 1.2.3 is converted to 1020300 -- the last two digits are reserved
* for future use.
*
* The result of this function can be used in comparing the version number
* in a calling program if version-specific calls need to be make.
*
* @return Version number of jitterentropy library
*/
JENT_PRIVATE_STATIC
unsigned int jent_version(void)
{
unsigned int version = 0;
version = MAJVERSION * 1000000;
version += MINVERSION * 10000;
version += PATCHLEVEL * 100;
return version;
}
/***************************************************************************
* Adaptive Proportion Test
*
* This test complies with SP800-90B section 4.4.2.
***************************************************************************/
/**
* Reset the APT counter
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
*/
static void jent_apt_reset(struct rand_data *ec, unsigned int delta_masked)
{
/* Reset APT counter */
ec->apt_count = 0;
ec->apt_base = delta_masked;
ec->apt_observations = 0;
}
/**
* Insert a new entropy event into APT
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
* @delta_masked [in] Masked time delta to process
*/
static void jent_apt_insert(struct rand_data *ec, unsigned int delta_masked)
{
/* Initialize the base reference */
if (!ec->apt_base_set) {
ec->apt_base = delta_masked;
ec->apt_base_set = 1;
return;
}
if (delta_masked == ec->apt_base) {
ec->apt_count++;
if (ec->apt_count >= JENT_APT_CUTOFF)
ec->health_failure = 1;
}
ec->apt_observations++;
if (ec->apt_observations >= JENT_APT_WINDOW_SIZE)
jent_apt_reset(ec, delta_masked);
}
/***************************************************************************
* Stuck Test and its use as Repetition Count Test
*
* The Jitter RNG uses an enhanced version of the Repetition Count Test
* (RCT) specified in SP800-90B section 4.4.1. Instead of counting identical
* back-to-back values, the input to the RCT is the counting of the stuck
* values during the generation of one Jitter RNG output block.
*
* The RCT is applied with an alpha of 2^{-30} compliant to FIPS 140-2 IG 9.8.
*
* During the counting operation, the Jitter RNG always calculates the RCT
* cut-off value of C. If that value exceeds the allowed cut-off value,
* the Jitter RNG output block will be calculated completely but discarded at
* the end. The caller of the Jitter RNG is informed with an error code.
***************************************************************************/
/**
* Repetition Count Test as defined in SP800-90B section 4.4.1
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
* @stuck [in] Indicator whether the value is stuck
*/
static void jent_rct_insert(struct rand_data *ec, int stuck)
{
/*
* If we have a count less than zero, a previous RCT round identified
* a failure. We will not overwrite it.
*/
if (ec->rct_count < 0)
return;
if (stuck) {
ec->rct_count++;
/*
* The cutoff value is based on the following consideration:
* alpha = 2^-30 as recommended in FIPS 140-2 IG 9.8.
* In addition, we require an entropy value H of 1/OSR as this
* is the minimum entropy required to provide full entropy.
* Note, we collect 64 * OSR deltas for inserting them into
* the entropy pool which should then have (close to) 64 bits
* of entropy.
*
* Note, ec->rct_count (which equals to value B in the pseudo
* code of SP800-90B section 4.4.1) starts with zero. Hence
* we need to subtract one from the cutoff value as calculated
* following SP800-90B.
*/
if ((unsigned int)ec->rct_count >= (30 * ec->osr)) {
ec->rct_count = -1;
ec->health_failure = 1;
}
} else {
ec->rct_count = 0;
}
}
/**
* Is there an RCT health test failure?
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
*
* @return
* 0 No health test failure
* 1 Permanent health test failure
*/
static int jent_rct_failure(struct rand_data *ec)
{
if (ec->rct_count < 0)
return 1;
return 0;
}
#ifdef _MSC_VER
static
#endif
VC_INLINE uint64_t jent_delta(uint64_t prev, uint64_t next)
{
return (prev < next) ? (next - prev) : (UINT64_MAX - prev + 1 + next);
}
/**
* Stuck test by checking the:
* 1st derivative of the jitter measurement (time delta)
* 2nd derivative of the jitter measurement (delta of time deltas)
* 3rd derivative of the jitter measurement (delta of delta of time deltas)
*
* All values must always be non-zero.
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
* @current_delta [in] Jitter time delta
*
* @return
* 0 jitter measurement not stuck (good bit)
* 1 jitter measurement stuck (reject bit)
*/
static int jent_stuck(struct rand_data *ec, uint64_t current_delta)
{
uint64_t delta2 = jent_delta(ec->last_delta, current_delta);
uint64_t delta3 = jent_delta(ec->last_delta2, delta2);
unsigned int delta_masked = current_delta & JENT_APT_WORD_MASK;
ec->last_delta = current_delta;
ec->last_delta2 = delta2;
/*
* Insert the result of the comparison of two back-to-back time
* deltas.
*/
jent_apt_insert(ec, delta_masked);
if (!current_delta || !delta2 || !delta3) {
/* RCT with a stuck bit */
jent_rct_insert(ec, 1);
return 1;
}
/* RCT with a non-stuck bit */
jent_rct_insert(ec, 0);
return 0;
}
/**
* Report any health test failures
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
*
* @return
* 0 No health test failure
* 1 Permanent health test failure
*/
static int jent_health_failure(struct rand_data *ec)
{
/* Test is only enabled in FIPS mode */
if (!ec->fips_enabled)
return 0;
return ec->health_failure;
}
/***************************************************************************
* Noise sources
***************************************************************************/
/**
* Update of the loop count used for the next round of
* an entropy collection.
*
* @ec [in] entropy collector struct -- may be NULL
* @bits [in] is the number of low bits of the timer to consider
* @min [in] is the number of bits we shift the timer value to the right at
* the end to make sure we have a guaranteed minimum value
*
* @return Newly calculated loop counter
*/
static uint64_t jent_loop_shuffle(struct rand_data *ec,
unsigned int bits, unsigned int min)
{
uint64_t time = 0;
uint64_t shuffle = 0;
unsigned int i = 0;
unsigned int mask = (1<data;
/*
* We fold the time value as much as possible to ensure that as many
* bits of the time stamp are included as possible.
*/
for (i = 0; ((DATA_SIZE_BITS + bits - 1) / bits) > i; i++) {
shuffle ^= time & mask;
time = time >> bits;
}
/*
* We add a lower boundary value to ensure we have a minimum
* RNG loop count.
*/
return (shuffle + (1<data
*/
static void jent_lfsr_time(struct rand_data *ec, uint64_t time,
uint64_t loop_cnt, int stuck)
{
unsigned int i;
uint64_t j = 0;
uint64_t new = 0;
#define MAX_FOLD_LOOP_BIT 4
#define MIN_FOLD_LOOP_BIT 0
uint64_t lfsr_loop_cnt =
jent_loop_shuffle(ec, MAX_FOLD_LOOP_BIT, MIN_FOLD_LOOP_BIT);
/*
* testing purposes -- allow test app to set the counter, not
* needed during runtime
*/
if (loop_cnt)
lfsr_loop_cnt = loop_cnt;
for (j = 0; j < lfsr_loop_cnt; j++) {
new = ec->data;
for (i = 1; (DATA_SIZE_BITS) >= i; i++) {
uint64_t tmp = time << (DATA_SIZE_BITS - i);
tmp = tmp >> (DATA_SIZE_BITS - 1);
/*
* Fibonacci LSFR with polynomial of
* x^64 + x^61 + x^56 + x^31 + x^28 + x^23 + 1 which is
* primitive according to
* http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/~ezivkovm/publications/primpol1.pdf
* (the shift values are the polynomial values minus one
* due to counting bits from 0 to 63). As the current
* position is always the LSB, the polynomial only needs
* to shift data in from the left without wrap.
*/
tmp ^= ((new >> 63) & 1);
tmp ^= ((new >> 60) & 1);
tmp ^= ((new >> 55) & 1);
tmp ^= ((new >> 30) & 1);
tmp ^= ((new >> 27) & 1);
tmp ^= ((new >> 22) & 1);
new <<= 1;
new ^= tmp;
}
}
/*
* If the time stamp is stuck, do not finally insert the value into
* the entropy pool. Although this operation should not do any harm
* even when the time stamp has no entropy, SP800-90B requires that
* any conditioning operation (SP800-90B considers the LFSR to be a
* conditioning operation) to have an identical amount of input
* data according to section 3.1.5.
*/
if (!stuck)
ec->data = new;
}
/**
* Memory Access noise source -- this is a noise source based on variations in
* memory access times
*
* This function performs memory accesses which will add to the timing
* variations due to an unknown amount of CPU wait states that need to be
* added when accessing memory. The memory size should be larger than the L1
* caches as outlined in the documentation and the associated testing.
*
* The L1 cache has a very high bandwidth, albeit its access rate is usually
* slower than accessing CPU registers. Therefore, L1 accesses only add minimal
* variations as the CPU has hardly to wait. Starting with L2, significant
* variations are added because L2 typically does not belong to the CPU any more
* and therefore a wider range of CPU wait states is necessary for accesses.
* L3 and real memory accesses have even a wider range of wait states. However,
* to reliably access either L3 or memory, the ec->mem memory must be quite
* large which is usually not desirable.
*
* @ec [in] Reference to the entropy collector with the memory access data -- if
* the reference to the memory block to be accessed is NULL, this noise
* source is disabled
* @loop_cnt [in] if a value not equal to 0 is set, use the given value as
* number of loops to perform the folding
*/
static void jent_memaccess(struct rand_data *ec, uint64_t loop_cnt)
{
unsigned int wrap = 0;
uint64_t i = 0;
#define MAX_ACC_LOOP_BIT 7
#define MIN_ACC_LOOP_BIT 0
uint64_t acc_loop_cnt =
jent_loop_shuffle(ec, MAX_ACC_LOOP_BIT, MIN_ACC_LOOP_BIT);
if (NULL == ec || NULL == ec->mem)
return;
wrap = ec->memblocksize * ec->memblocks;
/*
* testing purposes -- allow test app to set the counter, not
* needed during runtime
*/
if (loop_cnt)
acc_loop_cnt = loop_cnt;
for (i = 0; i < (ec->memaccessloops + acc_loop_cnt); i++) {
unsigned char *tmpval = ec->mem + ec->memlocation;
/*
* memory access: just add 1 to one byte,
* wrap at 255 -- memory access implies read
* from and write to memory location
*/
*tmpval = (*tmpval + 1) & 0xff;
/*
* Addition of memblocksize - 1 to pointer
* with wrap around logic to ensure that every
* memory location is hit evenly
*/
ec->memlocation = ec->memlocation + ec->memblocksize - 1;
ec->memlocation = ec->memlocation % wrap;
}
}
/***************************************************************************
* Start of entropy processing logic
***************************************************************************/
/**
* This is the heart of the entropy generation: calculate time deltas and
* use the CPU jitter in the time deltas. The jitter is injected into the
* entropy pool.
*
* WARNING: ensure that ->prev_time is primed before using the output
* of this function! This can be done by calling this function
* and not using its result.
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
*
* @return: result of stuck test
*/
static int jent_measure_jitter(struct rand_data *ec)
{
uint64_t time = 0;
uint64_t current_delta = 0;
int stuck;
/* Invoke one noise source before time measurement to add variations */
jent_memaccess(ec, 0);
/*
* Get time stamp and calculate time delta to previous
* invocation to measure the timing variations
*/
jent_get_nstime(&time);
current_delta = jent_delta(ec->prev_time, time);
ec->prev_time = time;
/* Check whether we have a stuck measurement. */
stuck = jent_stuck(ec, current_delta);
/* Now call the next noise sources which also injects the data */
jent_lfsr_time(ec, current_delta, 0, stuck);
return stuck;
}
/**
* Generator of one 64 bit random number
* Function fills rand_data->data
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
*/
static void jent_gen_entropy(struct rand_data *ec)
{
unsigned int k = 0;
/* priming of the ->prev_time value */
jent_measure_jitter(ec);
while (1) {
/* If a stuck measurement is received, repeat measurement */
if (jent_measure_jitter(ec))
continue;
/*
* We multiply the loop value with ->osr to obtain the
* oversampling rate requested by the caller
*/
if (++k >= (DATA_SIZE_BITS * ec->osr))
break;
}
}
/**
* Entry function: Obtain entropy for the caller.
*
* This function invokes the entropy gathering logic as often to generate
* as many bytes as requested by the caller. The entropy gathering logic
* creates 64 bit per invocation.
*
* This function truncates the last 64 bit entropy value output to the exact
* size specified by the caller.
*
* @ec [in] Reference to entropy collector
* @data [out] pointer to buffer for storing random data -- buffer must
* already exist
* @len [in] size of the buffer, specifying also the requested number of random
* in bytes
*
* @return number of bytes returned when request is fulfilled or an error
*
* The following error codes can occur:
* -1 entropy_collector is NULL
* -2 RCT failed
* -3 Chi-Squared test failed
*/
JENT_PRIVATE_STATIC
ssize_t jent_read_entropy(struct rand_data *ec, char *data, size_t len)
{
char *p = data;
size_t orig_len = len;
if (NULL == ec)
return -1;
while (0 < len) {
size_t tocopy;
jent_gen_entropy(ec);
if (jent_health_failure(ec)) {
if (jent_rct_failure(ec))
return -2;
else
return -3;
}
if ((DATA_SIZE_BITS / 8) < len)
tocopy = (DATA_SIZE_BITS / 8);
else
tocopy = len;
memcpy(p, &ec->data, tocopy);
len -= tocopy;
p += tocopy;
}
/*
* To be on the safe side, we generate one more round of entropy
* which we do not give out to the caller. That round shall ensure
* that in case the calling application crashes, memory dumps, pages
* out, or due to the CPU Jitter RNG lingering in memory for long
* time without being moved and an attacker cracks the application,
* all he reads in the entropy pool is a value that is NEVER EVER
* being used for anything. Thus, he does NOT see the previous value
* that was returned to the caller for cryptographic purposes.
*/
/*
* If we use secured memory, do not use that precaution as the secure
* memory protects the entropy pool. Moreover, note that using this
* call reduces the speed of the RNG by up to half
*/
#ifndef CONFIG_CRYPTO_CPU_JITTERENTROPY_SECURE_MEMORY
jent_gen_entropy(ec);
#endif
return orig_len;
}
/***************************************************************************
* Initialization logic
***************************************************************************/
JENT_PRIVATE_STATIC
struct rand_data *jent_entropy_collector_alloc(unsigned int osr,
unsigned int flags)
{
struct rand_data *entropy_collector;
entropy_collector = jent_zalloc(sizeof(struct rand_data));
if (NULL == entropy_collector)
return NULL;
if (!(flags & JENT_DISABLE_MEMORY_ACCESS)) {
/* Allocate memory for adding variations based on memory
* access
*/
entropy_collector->mem =
(unsigned char *)jent_zalloc(JENT_MEMORY_SIZE);
if (NULL == entropy_collector->mem) {
jent_zfree(entropy_collector, sizeof(struct rand_data));
return NULL;
}
entropy_collector->memblocksize = JENT_MEMORY_BLOCKSIZE;
entropy_collector->memblocks = JENT_MEMORY_BLOCKS;
entropy_collector->memaccessloops = JENT_MEMORY_ACCESSLOOPS;
}
/* verify and set the oversampling rate */
if (0 == osr)
osr = 1; /* minimum sampling rate is 1 */
entropy_collector->osr = osr;
if (jent_fips_enabled())
entropy_collector->fips_enabled = 1;
/* fill the data pad with non-zero values */
jent_gen_entropy(entropy_collector);
return entropy_collector;
}
JENT_PRIVATE_STATIC
void jent_entropy_collector_free(struct rand_data *entropy_collector)
{
if (NULL != entropy_collector) {
if (NULL != entropy_collector->mem) {
jent_zfree(entropy_collector->mem, JENT_MEMORY_SIZE);
entropy_collector->mem = NULL;
}
jent_zfree(entropy_collector, sizeof(struct rand_data));
}
}
JENT_PRIVATE_STATIC
int jent_entropy_init(void)
{
int i;
uint64_t delta_sum = 0;
uint64_t old_delta = 0;
unsigned int nonstuck = 0;
int time_backwards = 0;
int count_mod = 0;
int count_stuck = 0;
struct rand_data ec;
memset(&ec, 0, sizeof(ec));
/* Required for RCT */
ec.osr = 1;
if (jent_fips_enabled())
ec.fips_enabled = 1;
/* We could perform statistical tests here, but the problem is
* that we only have a few loop counts to do testing. These
* loop counts may show some slight skew and we produce
* false positives.
*
* Moreover, only old systems show potentially problematic
* jitter entropy that could potentially be caught here. But
* the RNG is intended for hardware that is available or widely
* used, but not old systems that are long out of favor. Thus,
* no statistical tests.
*/
/*
* We could add a check for system capabilities such as clock_getres or
* check for CONFIG_X86_TSC, but it does not make much sense as the
* following sanity checks verify that we have a high-resolution
* timer.
*/
/*
* TESTLOOPCOUNT needs some loops to identify edge systems. 100 is
* definitely too little.
*
* SP800-90B requires at least 1024 initial test cycles.
*/
#define TESTLOOPCOUNT 1024
#define CLEARCACHE 100
for (i = 0; (TESTLOOPCOUNT + CLEARCACHE) > i; i++) {
uint64_t time = 0;
uint64_t time2 = 0;
uint64_t delta = 0;
unsigned int lowdelta = 0;
int stuck;
/* Invoke core entropy collection logic */
jent_get_nstime(&time);
ec.prev_time = time;
jent_memaccess(&ec, 0);
jent_lfsr_time(&ec, time, 0, 0);
jent_get_nstime(&time2);
/* test whether timer works */
if (!time || !time2)
return ENOTIME;
delta = jent_delta(time, time2);
/*
* test whether timer is fine grained enough to provide
* delta even when called shortly after each other -- this
* implies that we also have a high resolution timer
*/
if (!delta)
return ECOARSETIME;
stuck = jent_stuck(&ec, delta);
/*
* up to here we did not modify any variable that will be
* evaluated later, but we already performed some work. Thus we
* already have had an impact on the caches, branch prediction,
* etc. with the goal to clear it to get the worst case
* measurements.
*/
if (CLEARCACHE > i)
continue;
if (stuck)
count_stuck++;
else {
nonstuck++;
/*
* Ensure that the APT succeeded.
*
* With the check below that count_stuck must be less
* than 10% of the overall generated raw entropy values
* it is guaranteed that the APT is invoked at
* floor((TESTLOOPCOUNT * 0.9) / 64) == 14 times.
*/
if ((nonstuck % JENT_APT_WINDOW_SIZE) == 0) {
jent_apt_reset(&ec,
delta & JENT_APT_WORD_MASK);
if (jent_health_failure(&ec))
return EHEALTH;
}
}
/* Validate RCT */
if (jent_rct_failure(&ec))
return ERCT;
/* test whether we have an increasing timer */
if (!(time2 > time))
time_backwards++;
/* use 32 bit value to ensure compilation on 32 bit arches */
lowdelta = (uint64_t)time2 - (uint64_t)time;
if (!(lowdelta % 100))
count_mod++;
/*
* ensure that we have a varying delta timer which is necessary
* for the calculation of entropy -- perform this check
* only after the first loop is executed as we need to prime
* the old_data value
*/
if (delta > old_delta)
delta_sum += (delta - old_delta);
else
delta_sum += (old_delta - delta);
old_delta = delta;
}
/*
* we allow up to three times the time running backwards.
* CLOCK_REALTIME is affected by adjtime and NTP operations. Thus,
* if such an operation just happens to interfere with our test, it
* should not fail. The value of 3 should cover the NTP case being
* performed during our test run.
*/
if (3 < time_backwards)
return ENOMONOTONIC;
/*
* Variations of deltas of time must on average be larger
* than 1 to ensure the entropy estimation
* implied with 1 is preserved
*/
if ((delta_sum) <= 1)
return EMINVARVAR;
/*
* Ensure that we have variations in the time stamp below 10 for at least
* 10% of all checks -- on some platforms, the counter increments in
* multiples of 100, but not always
*/
if ((TESTLOOPCOUNT/10 * 9) < count_mod)
return ECOARSETIME;
/*
* If we have more than 90% stuck results, then this Jitter RNG is
* likely to not work well.
*/
if ((TESTLOOPCOUNT/10 * 9) < count_stuck)
return ESTUCK;
return 0;
}